Emiliano Friends, editor of the site sguardosulmedioevo.org, He has made an exception for History Pills writing an article that goes beyond what is the site-specific field itself, focused on the Middle Ages.
The article, that deals with a crucial topic of recent history, It is published below.
The Crisi in Cuba It ranks during the period of “Cold War” ie that particular moment in history when US and USSR They will discuss various world scenarios without ever entering the war with each other.
But in October 1962 He went close to a nuclear war with devastating dimensions for the world.
It all starts in April 1962 when the Presidium of the USSR accepts the request Cuva of conventional weapons for its defense against a possible US attack; the advent of the Bay of Pigs with the failed attempt to rovesciere Castro had a hand thrown mud on the administration Kennedy and his military entourage, the other had placed in Cuba alarm that asked for help to his political-ideological ally.
The aid consisted of a regiment of infantry and 180 SAM missiles ground air. But at the end of May Khrushchev wanted to increase the military potential of the island by building a base for Soviet submarines carrying missiles armed with nuclear warheads, and the deployment of thirty-six missile SS-4 medium-range SS-5 and twenty-range intermediate.
Although Castro had not asked atormiche weapons on the territory, Khrushchev gave them to him no more than willingly among others work hard to convince the Cuban leader.
This major deployment of weapons was due to compensate bulleted missiles from Italy and Turkey with the famous Jupiter that were installed right on the Soviet border.
This test of Moscow strength not only acquired prestige in the eyes of the world but especially retaliated humiliation occurred in 1961 when Defense Secretary Gillpatric boasted the American superiority in nuclear weapons.
In 1962 the US had five thousand nuclear warheads while the Soviet Union still could not bridge the problem about the long-range transport of missilia: They were in possession of twenty intercontinental missiles against American hundred eighty. Chruscev era convinto che dopo aver avvisato il mondo della presenza di testate nucleari a pochi chilometri dall’America avrebbe ottenuto concessioni su Berlino, Laos.
But ka CIA was at work. His boss John McCone had long noticed large boats that pointed straight toward Cuba and warned Kennedy strange movements on the island, however, confirmed by spies.
The 14 October Kennedy decided to authorize the flight of aircraft ricorgnizione U2 with the intent to be captured that risultaranno absolutely unequivocal; the 16 October Kennedy convened a team of officials to determine the moves to be implemented. During the talks of what will be called the “Executive committee”, emerged 3 positions
a) The first strategy It was to attack with conventional weapons missile sites before they became operational. Kennedy categorically rejected because of the risk of killing the Soviet technicians which would have implied retaliation with unimaginable consequences or the US or in Berlin;
b) The second strategy included aerial bombing followed by an invasion but also in this case, Kennedy feared to kill the only one Soviet man would surely have sparked retaliatory comunistra.
c) The third strategy It was a diplomatic; it was clear and evident that the military brass wanted to redeem the bad figure failed invasion of the Bay of Pigs eprtanto you parirono negotiations on the most varied topics starting dall'ottonere a UN resolution that would oblige Moscow to dismantle the missile sites.
Kennedy, in the meantime, He decided to protect itself by installing conventional missiles in Florida in view of a possible attack of the island in the case in which even the diplomatic route would be gone bad.
After Kennedy led the army to the highest level of alert from the War on, gesture that quintupled the B-47 and B-52.
The military apparatus implemento had clearly intended to encourage Moscow to remove the missiles in Cuba showing a showdown that Moscow knew he could not fight.
The 22 October, in a message to unified networks, Kennedy claims to have created a “quarantine” against Soviet ships that were advancing towards the island; It was deftly avoided the term “block” because according to international law a blockade is an act of war in effect.
He also warned Moscow that a missile would hit any country in the Western Hemisphere it would be interpreted as an attack on American soil which would trigger an immediate atomic retaliation.
The 24 October at 10.00 He begins the quarantine did not produce the desired effect completely fact was easily vulnerable even by Soviet submarines that could break the blockade at any time…really it seemed that war was imminent.
Despite Soviet missiles on Cuba were ready to be launched at any time, Khrushchev decided to propose a deal to resolve a crisis that would plunging the world toward nuclear catastrophe.
In a dramatic evening of 26 October 1962 He came a letter attributed to the communist secretary which called for the renunciation of any attempt at invasion of Cuba in exchange for disarmament.
While the Executive Committee worked to establish a new strategy came a second letter in which in addition to not invade Cuba, the US would have to dismantle Jupiter installed in Turkey.
The first letter was kept secret but the second was spread via radio and Kennedy, not to give the idea to the American people of weakness (the average Termien elections were at the gates) He decided to accept the conditions of the first letter, certainly more conciliatory.
The will of 27 October Bob Kennedy's defense secretary went to the Soviet Embassy, convinced of an imminent war, He was burning its archives. Bob Kenendy assured the Ambassador that the US would never invade the island and would never supported third party with the same intentions.
But the agreement included a clause…not to appear weak, the US demanded secrecy on the second point of the agreement: Jupiters missiles in Turkey would be dismantled within six months provided that this agreement was not disclosed to the press otherwise the US would disprove (the agreement was not written) and provided of course a dismantling of the Soviet sites on Cuba.
Castro got angry with the Soviet ally, accusing him of giving in to blackmail Soviets therefore decided not to allow the checks to UN inspectors but Kennedy used equally effective means.
The agreement was only informally and 1970 Brezhnev and Nixon confirmed the commitment of their predecessors in writing.
Thanks to men of good will, the world is safe.
It is recommended for reading:
a) A World of Nations, Keylor
a) Thirteen Days (full movie: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sl7zPeILmCM)
a) The Kennedy speech on Quarantine (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W50RNAbmy3M)