I thank Stefania Di Pasquale, translator and collaborator of the research group North Pole-Group Brussels, that deals with French Revolution and the figure of Jean-Paul Marat in particular, for having sent to History Pills the article that follows carryover, or the vision of the Terror and of fall of Robespierre according to historian Albert Mathiez (found the results of the work done by North Pole-Group Brussels to this link: http://www.marat-jean-paul.org).
Personally, I distance from the position expressed by the scholar, as I had a vision of the event largely different part, but to Mathiez it is the opinion of one of the most distinguished historians on the subject and try to shed light on a very controversial time of Revolution, on which there is probably more to discover: enjoy the reading (also read https://www.pilloledistoria.it/10320/storia-moderna/simonne-evrard-la-moglie-marat) .
Explained by Albert Historical Mathiez.
-When the revolutionary France, attacked from Europe to the borders of monarchies and torn in the struggle against those who wanted to come to terms with the enemy, the Committee of Public Health he realized that it was time to win or perish, concentrating its forces in a final attempt.
Robespierre, from the soul so mild and humane, He played a decisive role, in the implementation of a system of repression that was to try to frighten traitors and reduce them to impotence.
The man who at the time of the Constituent, when the "peace" reigned, He was opposed to the first laws against premature exception of measures, who he was opposed to the first laws against the clergy and emigrants, who he had taken a courageous defense of all the rights and freedoms, He had unsuccessfully proposed the abolition of the death penalty, He was dragged slowly to give their adherence to the contribution of the Republic salvation in danger from all sides.
In 1793 France was torn by factions, the civil war was compounded to the outside, a powerful party (Gironda) He fought openly for the victory of the enemy, and then create a federal France and enlist an army, along with the traitor Dumouriez.
After the’uprising 10 August, which he took off from the throne the treacherous monarchy, in the invasion of Prussian Champagne, Robespierre took the initiative to establish the first Extraordinary Court, he would have to judge crimes against the Revolution.
I Girondini, united to Realists, give rise departments, delivering Toulon the British, Robespierre, Couthon, Collot d’Herbois, Billaud-Varennes, Danton and other Montagnards, require the arrest of those responsible.
The 31 May 1793 the Girondins deputies are arrested, processed by the Revolutionary Court and sentenced to the guillotine in October 1793.
Toulon in the end of the 93′ It was still under the British, and the Public Health Committee feared that the sudden suppression of the revolutionary measures, liberation in mass suspects, could trigger a violent reaction, that would have overwhelmed the Republic.
For inspire recklessness then they competed imprudences and manipulations of Dantonists, their shady intrigues in favor of an early peace, their suspected links with corrupt men or even monarchists declared.
The Committee declared that it was not the time to paralyze the energies of the nation and made front decisively against both right-wing extremists, both against the leftists.
Robespierre came to know of the serious excesses of some members of the Public Health Committee, come i massacres made by Carrier in Nantes, the behavior of Tallien in Bordeaux, the robberies and massacres made by Barras e Fréron in the south of France and the excesses of Fouche in Lyon, Robespierre made them all call and tried to block their activities, removing the revolutionary power of unclean hands of those who had abused.
All these proconsuls recalled to Paris we went back with full of resentment mood organizing with the murder of Robespierre, of Saint-Just, Couthon, Lebas, Augustin Robespierre e Dumas.
Robespierre actually tried MODERATION, INDULGENCE, his concern against the religious prejudices of the people, the supreme being party, the 20 Prairial to reconcile religious citizens with the Republic, are all evidence that she was gradually putting an end to the measures of exception and with the total pacification of the country.
He accuses Robespierre of being a dictator, a kind of pope, without whose permission nothing could be done.
Too easy to take on the word Thermidorians.
In the Public Health Committee he was in the minority, at the time of his alleged dictatorship.
The General Security Committee, which kept the Revolutionary Court under its control had almost unanimously hostile.
The 9 Termidoro It was not the work of men who wanted to put an end to terror, but unlike men who had abused and terror they would like to take it indefinitely, to create a cover.
But since these men were overwhelmed by events, not being able to stop the reaction, which had triggered unintentionally, and having identified for reasons of tactics Robespierre, Saint-Just e Couthon the excesses, It has formed the legend that the latter have been the personification of Terror (of Albert Mathiez) (Photo gives: boomerangpress.com e it.wikipedia.org).