The following article, devoted entirely to Simonne Evrard, wife of the French revolutionary Jean-Paul Marat, It has been translated to History Pills gives Stefania Di Pasquale, collaborator of the research group North Pole-Group Brussels, that deals French Revolution and in particular way of Marat (If you want to read what they have published, click here: http://www.marat-jean-paul.org).
In Stefania to thank for his valuable collaboration, I invite you to read the post, that sheds light on a female figure little known and neglected culpably, instead it is worth further, both for its unquestionable modernity connotations, both for what she did for the conservation of the writings of her husband.
Enjoy the reading.
Simonne Evrard nasce in Tournus (France) the 6 February 1764, The father of Simonne, Nicolas Evrard, nacque he has Tournus 4 May 1724, He married twice.
union with Catherine Baret, He had a daughter: Philiberte (Born on 28 February 1762) and second marriage Catherine Large, three daughters: Simonne (Born on 6 February 1764), Etiennette (Born on 4 October 1766) e Catherine (Born on 16 September 1769).
Nicolas Evrard was employed carpenter-boats, and lived in a house located in the district Pêcherie, Saint-André parish, sul Wharf North, a Tournus.
He owned a house.
His second wife, Catherine Large, He possessed a forest Charne and another land, without much value, five kilometers from Tournus.
With respect to studies of girls, the most likely thing is that they have been educated at the free school of hospice charity Tournus.
In 1774, Mom dies, followed, the 18 February 1776, Father Nicolas.
Philiberte has 14 years, Simonne 12, Etiennette 10 and Catherine 7.
It is unclear who had been designated for the protection, but tradition has it that the four orphans they moved to Paris, Tournus where a woman would open a shop near a laundry room giving their labor.
Later, Some documents indicate that a cook married Etiennette, Antoine Bezancenot, Catherine and a printer, Jean-Antoine Horn.
Marat met before Simonne 1 January 1792, date that appears in the wedding vows that he took towards his girlfriend.
This text is found among the papers placed under seal after his assassination.
Marat wrote it before a departure for England.
“The fine qualities of Mademoiselle Simonne Evrard have captured my heart from which receives honor, I leave that as a pledge of my faith, during the trip that I have to do in London, the sacred commitment to give her my hand, Immediately after my return. If all my tenderness is not enough to ensure my loyalty, that forgetfulness of this commitment shall cover me with infamy. "
Paris 1 January 1792
J-P Marat friend of the people.
This text was also published in Journal of The Mountain, newspaper that will help, on several occasions, to convey to the public the precise documents concerning Marat.
We will find that in this Journal, the 23 July 1793, the testimony of the citizen Guirault that reminded, not so romance, possible circumstances of this ceremony.
A document to Watch, naturally.
Marat did not believe an empty ceremony commitment of marriage, However, not wanting to alarm the decency of Evrard town, He called in one day to his bedroom window; squeezing his hand in that of his girlfriend, both bowed in front of the Supreme Being, “In the vast temple of nature, he said, I take in witness to swear eternal fidelity to you, creator who plays there. "
Simonne Evrard mostly known by his contemporaries by the appearance that made the '8 August 1793, the Tribune National Convention, where it was introduced by Robespierre himself.
The ability that she shows to the Convention testifies that it is the whole of the current political context and past and present who knows his role, and soon that of the sister of Marat, Albertine, will become the delicate roles.
Note that at this time, the title of the widow is not contested by anyone, when in front of the same assembly, Marat enemies are numerous : Carra, Ducos, Dulaur to, Jacques Roux, Leclerc…
“I did not come to ask you the favor of greed that craves and demands the destitution. The Marat widow needs just that of a tomb. Before you get to this happy end of the torments of my life, I will come to demand justice of new attacks committed against the memory of the bravest and most outraged defenders of the people. These monsters, how much gold they have lavished ! pamphleteers those hypocrites were salaried to cover his name of reproach. With that horrible fury have tried to give him a colossal political existence and a celebrity hateful, for the sole purpose to dishonor the cause of the people, he has faithfully defended; now all it covered by his blood, They persecuted him to the grave ; some day, still dare to assassinate his memory, are striving to paint under the appearance of an interesting heroine surrounded the monster within her iron parricide. We see in this circle the vilest of all follicular, i Carra, i Ducos, i Dulaure, the boast shamelessly in their periodic, to encourage their peers to slaughter the rest of the defenders of freedom. I am not speaking of that vile Petion, a Caen, in the assembly of his accomplices, He dared to say on this occasion that the murder was a virtue.
Soon the wicked treachery of the conspirators, pretending to pay homage to its civic virtues, multiply to large prints of infamy costs, where the horrible murderess is presented under the favorable features, and martyr of the country marred by the most horrible convulsions.
But here is the most perfidious of their maneuvers: have corrupted the wicked writers who usurp with impunity his name and defacing its principles, to eternalize the power of slander in which the victim was ! Cowards ! Before flatter the pain of the people for his praise, They speak the language of patriotism and morality, in order that the people still believe to hear Marat; but it is nothing more than to defame the most zealous defenders who have kept; It is to preach, in the name of Marat, the maximum exaggerations that his enemies have attributed, and that all his conduct disowned
I will sue you in particular two men, Jacques Roux e Leclerc, that claim to continue his patriotic sheets and to talk his shadow to insult his memory and to the wrong people; after debitato revolutionary clichés, They told the people that have to prescribe any sort of government; it is them who order in his name to shed blood in the day of 10 August, because his sensitive soul, tormented by the spectacle of the crimes of tyranny et ills of humanity, They have come out sometimes the righteous blood anathemas against the public and against the oppressors of the people; They seek to perpetuate after his death the parricide slander that haunted him and presented as a senseless apostle of disorder and anarchy. And who are these men who claim to replace ? is a priest the next day, where the faithful deputies triumph and their cowardly enemies, They are insulting the National Convention by a wicked and seditious skills. There is another man no less perverse, associated with furori mercenaries of this impostor. What is very significant, It is that these two men are the same that have been sued by him, a few days before his death, at the Cordeliers Club, as salaried people by our enemies to disturb the public peace and, in the same section, They were formally expelled from the womb of this popular company.
What is the purpose of the evil faction that continues these criminal plots ? It is to humiliate the people that pays tribute to the memory of which he died for his cause, to defame all the friends of the fatherland, which he designated the names of Maratisti; to disappoint the people, perhaps all Frenchmen of the whole republic that gather for the meeting of 10 August, and present their perfidious writings that speak of the representative of the doctrine of the people who slaughtered; It is perhaps to disturb these solemn days by some fatal catastrophe. It gave ! What will be the fate of the people, therefore, ? if these men can usurp his confidence! what is the deplorable condition of its intrepid defenders if death itself can not escape them the wrath of their murderers ! Legislators, until when the crime would suffer insults virtue ? Where does this strange privilege to the emissaries of England and Austria to imprison public opinion, offer to the defenders of our laws daggers, and learn about the foundations of our nascent republic ? If you leave them unpunished, I denounce them here to the French people, the universe. The memory of the martyrs of freedom and heritage of the people; to Marat is the only good that I just, I consecrate to his defense the last days of a languid life. Legislators, avenge the homeland, honesty, bad luck and virtue, hitting the most cowardly of all enemies.”
From the ceremonies that took place after the death of Marat, we will find from the mouth of several speakers these recognitions charge Simonne: «his inseparable company ", will tell Alexandre Rousselin, "His dear companion" says brother Lepeletier, her his "bride worthy and dear», tell the citizen Winter.
And in his answer to the detractors of the Friend of the people, Albertine Marat speaks of her with respect and affection:
“Finding no relief with the less fortunate, He fell in his pain, people, Your good genius decided more: permitted that a godly woman, whose soul resembles its, consecrating his fortune and his rest, to save your friend. heroic Woman, You receive the homage that your virtues deserve: will we owe you. Inflamed by the divine fire of freedom, did you want to preserving the most ardent defender. You shared his fate and his tribulations: nothing can stop your zeal; you sacrificed to the Friend of the people, the fear of your family and the prejudices of your century. Forced to restrain myself here, I will wait for the moment where your virtues appear in all their glory”.
And the wording of the intervention of Simonne in front of the Convention, we note again that she evokes precisely what Marat felt his attitude to politics, where there is, in his eyes, a serious and permanent formation.
Simonne accustom imprisoned Twice in his life, the first time in May 1795, the Government of jailed Directory, ghigliottinò and he exiled all the Jacobin sympathizers, even suspected of sympathy for Robespierre.
The widow and her sister Albertine Marat Marat were deported to prison Saint-Pélagie and stay there for over eight months.
The second imprisonment of the two women came in 1801 After the attack in Napoleon.
These women throughout their life they suffered humiliation and took to life recluse, trying to keep all the writings of’ Friend of the People.
Simonne worked hard to publish the works of her late husband, but poverty was too large and could no longer arrange the dissemination of the writings.
Simonne Evrard died in absolute poverty on 24 February 1824, following a fall of stairs in the Rue de la Barillerie.
As for the sequence of events concerning Albertine Marat and Simonne Evrard, we find them united in defense of their brother and husband, and in the draft finally publish his Works Political and Patriotic.
(Translation performed by Stefania Di Pasquale, translator and collaborator of the historical research group North Pole-Brussels) (Photo gives: it.pinterest.com)